Alexander Solzhenitsyn: works, brief description
One of the writers of the twentieth century, whose worktoday is of particular interest to researchers, is Alexander Solzhenitsyn. The works of this author are considered primarily in the socio-political aspect. An analysis of Solzhenitsyn's works is the subject of this article.
Themes of books
Solzhenitsyn's work is the history of the ArchipelagoGULAG. The peculiarity of his books is to depict the opposition of man to the forces of evil. Alexander Solzhenitsyn is a man who went through the war, and in the end he was arrested for "treason to the Motherland". He dreamed of literary creativity and sought to learn as deeply as possible the history of the revolution, because it was here that he sought inspiration. But life threw him other subjects. Prisons, camps, links and an incurable disease. Then miraculous healing, worldwide glory. And finally - expulsion from the Soviet Union.
So, what did Solzhenitsyn write about? The works of this writer - a long path of self-improvement. And it is given only if there is a huge life experience and a high cultural level. A real writer is always a little above life. He seems to see himself and others from the side, somewhat detached.
Alexander Solzhenitsyn has come a long way. He saw the world, getting into that, a person has little chance to survive both physically and spiritually. He survived. Moreover, I was able to reflect this in my work. Thanks to a rich and rare literary gift, the books that Solzhenitsyn created became the property of the Russian people.
The list includes the following novels, novels and short stories:
- "One day of Ivan Denisovich."
- Matrenin yard.
- "The case at the Kochetkov station."
- "Zakhar Kalita."
- "Young growth".
- "Does not matter".
- "The Gulag Archipelago".
- "In the first circle."
Before the first publication of their creations, moreSolzhenitsyn was engaged in literary creation for twelve years. The works listed above are only a part of his creative heritage. But these books should be read by every person for whom the Russian language is native. The themes of Solzhenitsyn's works are not concentrated on the horrors of camp life. This writer, like no other in the XX century, was able to portray a real Russian character. A character that strikes with its stamina, based on certain natural and deep ideas about life.
One day from the life of a prisoner
The camp topic became close to the Sovietrights. The most monstrous thing in it is that it was forbidden to discuss it. Moreover, even after 1953, fear did not allow talking about the tragedy that occurred in every third family. Solzhenitsyn's work One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich brought to the society an ethic, forged in the camps. In whatever situation a person turns out, he should not forget about his dignity. Shukhov - the hero of the story Solzhenitsyn - every camp day does not live, but tries to survive. But the words of the old prisoner, whom he heard back in 1943, sunk into his soul: "The one who lick the bowls is dead."
Solzhenitsyn in this story combines two pointsview: the author and the hero. They are not the opposite. In them there is a certain general ideology. Differences in them - the level of generalization and breadth of material. To achieve the distinction between the thoughts of the hero and the reasoning of the author, Solzhenitsyn manages to use stylistic means.
The author of "Ivan Denisovich" returned to literature a simple Russian peasant. The hero of Solzhenitsyn lives, relying on simple folk wisdom, without thinking more than necessary, and without reflecting.
To Ivan Denisovich were not indifferentreaders of the literary magazine "New World". The publication of the story produced a resonance in society. But before getting to the pages of the periodical, it was necessary to go through a difficult path. And here, too, a simple Russian character won. The author himself in an autobiographical work claimed that "Ivan Denisovich" came to press, because as the editor-in-chief of the "New World" was none other than a man from the people - Alexander Tvardovsky. And the main critic of the country - Nikita Khrushchev - was interested in "camp life through the eyes of a simple peasant."
To preserve humanity in conditions that are lesshave to understanding, love, disinterestedness ... This is the problem that Solzhenitsyn's Matrenin Yard is devoted to. The heroine of the story is a lonely woman, not understood by her husband, adopted daughter, neighbors, with whom she has lived side by side for half a century. Matryona has not saved up the property, but it works for free on others. She does not harbor anyone's anger and as if she does not see all those vices that overwhelm the souls of her neighbors. It is on such people as Matryona, according to the author, is the village, the city, and all our land.
History of writing
After the exile, Solzhenitsyn spent nearly a year in the deafvillage. Worked as a teacher. I rented a room from a local woman who became the prototype of the heroine of the story "Matrenin yard". The story was published in 1963. The work was highly appreciated by both readers and critics. The editor-in-chief of Novy Mir, A. Tvardovsky, noted that an illiterate and simple woman named Matryona earned her readers' interest thanks to her rich spiritual world.
Solzhenitsyn was able to publish only two stories in the Soviet Union. Works "In the First Circle", "The Gulag Archipelago" were published for the first time in the West.
In his work Solzhenitsyn combined studyreality and writing approach. Working on the "Gulag Archipelago," Solzhenitsyn used testimonies from more than two hundred people. Works about the camp life and the inhabitants of sharashka are based not only on their own experience. When reading the novel "The Gulag Archipelago" sometimes you do not understand that this is a work of art or scientific work? But the result of the study can be only statistical data. His own experience and the stories of his acquaintances allowed Solzhenitsyn to generalize all the material he had collected.
Originality of the novel
The "Gulag Archipelago" consists of three volumes. In each of them the author sets out different periods in the history of the camps. On the example of particular cases, the technology of arrest and investigation is shown. The sophistication with which the staff of the institution worked at the Lubyanka is amazing. To accuse a person of what he did not do, security officers committed a series of complex manipulations.
The author makes the reader feelplace of the inhabitant of the camp. The novel "The Gulag Archipelago" is a mystery that attracts and attracts. Acquaintance with the psychology of man, disfigured by constant fear and terror, forms readers with a steadfast hatred of the totalitarian regime in all its manifestations.
A person turning into a prisoner forgets aboutmoral, political and aesthetic principles. The only goal is to survive. Especially frightening is a break in the psyche of a prisoner, educated in idealistic, lofty ideas about his own place in society. In the world of cruelty and unprincipledness, it is almost impossible to be a human being, and not to be a man is to break yourself for good.
In the literary underground
For many years Solzhenitsyn created his own works,and then burned. The contents of the destroyed manuscripts were stored only in his memory. The positive aspects of the underground activity for the writer, according to Solzhenitsyn, are that the author is freed from the influence of censors and editors. But after twelve years of uninterrupted writing of stories and novels that remained unknown, lonely creativity began to strangle him. Leo Tolstoy once said that a writer should not publish his books during his lifetime. Because it's immoral. Solzhenitsyn argued that with the words of the great classics one can agree, but nevertheless every author needs criticism.