Who among us has not heard the phrase"Bartholomew's Night"? The meaning of this phraseology is also known to quite a lot, this expression has become synonymous with senseless and ruthless massacres, and in general senseless cruelty. But the reason why these words got such a value is, unfortunately, not known to everyone.
Events, which in the aftermath of the titleBartholomew's Night, occurred in 1572, the night of August 24. On this day the day of St. Bartholomew is celebrated, his name was later named this tragic event. But before describing the immediate incident, it is necessary to say a few words about what caused the cause.
For Europe of the XVI century, education andthe spread of various religious movements based on Christianity, but rejecting the traditional for these places of Catholicism. New directions and the truth was quite a lot, including Lutheranism, Anglicanism, Calvinism, etc. However, they differed from each other a little. At the heart of all Protestant movements is the simplification of service to God: the rejection of most of the ordinances of the Church, only baptism and communion were left, as well as the refusal of veneration of holy relics and icons, etc. From the prayer houses removed the altar and, of course, all the statues, icons and icons, and indeed all the magnificent furnishings. In addition, all sermons and hymns, as well as the Bible, which was considered the only source of teaching, were translated into the languages of the flock. In addition, there was no such thing as a vow of celibacy, and any member of the community could become a priest. The latter particularly outraged the Pope and all Catholics.
In connection with the growing popularityProtestant movements, religious wars began on the territory of Europe. Most of them were held on the territory of France, since it was there that the movement of Calvinism was actively developing. The French jokingly called them Huguenots, and eventually this nickname settled down in the ranks of the Calvinists.
As a result of several bloody wars,concluded the Saint Germain Peace, according to which the Huguenots received quite a lot of rights, including partial freedom of religion. In addition, the leader of the Calvinist movement, Admiral Coligny, was admitted to the royal council. This allowed him to soon gain a great influence on Charles IX. To further strengthen such a fragile peace, it was decided to extradite Marguerite Valois to one of the leaders of the Calvinists, Henry of Navarre.
But the Queen Mother, Catherine de Medici, isthe state of affairs did not suit. Particularly because she was afraid of losing influence on the king. And the fact that Coligny tried to convince Carl to start a war with Catholic Spain.
During the preparation for the wedding in Paris camea number of noble and influential Protestants, which aroused dissatisfaction of the Catholics of Paris. The priests only intensified this discontent. Including by spreading rumors that the Huguenots are plotting to overthrow the king.
Noisy and magnificent wedding, held on August 181572 even more angry townspeople. In an atmosphere of growing discontent, the developments developed very rapidly. The Duke of Guise on August 22 committed an attempt on Coligny. Accordingly, the Huguenots demanded to punish the criminal. All this provoked rumors among Calvinists that a new war with Catholics could not be avoided. Some of them hurried to leave the city.
Naturally, Catherine de 'Medici took advantage of the situation and persuaded Karl of the need for physical destruction of Huguenots. Now the Bartholomew night was inevitable.
August 23, by order of the King, allgate at the exit from Paris, and the houses of the Huguenots were marked with chalk. The same night the conspirators broke into the shelter of the wounded admiral and killed him. After that, the inhabitants of the city, incited by the clergy, began to break into the houses and kill everyone who came across them on the way. Those who considered such measures too cruel, in every way convinced of their necessity and even threatened with excommunication from the church.
The same purposeful massacre began inother cities of France. In total, St. Bartholomew's Night claimed the lives of more than 10,000 Calvinists, of whom about 3 thousand were killed in Paris. It is not difficult to guess that such cruelty not only did not solve the problem, but also aggravated it. After that, the war with the Huguenots really became inevitable. And the defeat in this war again suffered the Catholics. Charles IX was again forced to make concessions.
However, the event itself received manypositive responses from Catholics around the world, including the Pope. Only after 425 years did the Roman Pope John Paul II recognize that the St. Bartholomew's Night in France was a mistake, and sharply condemned it.
However, it is worth noting that such sharesconducted not only Catholics. So in the city of Nimes, six years before the events described, something similar was arranged by the Huguenots themselves. However, Bartholomew's Night surpasses all such events in scale several times.