Building a cellar with your own hands
Buying a plot of land for growing vegetablesand fruit, you need to think about the way they are stored in the winter. Otherwise, a large harvest will not bring you joy, but will only be a burden. Therefore, the construction of a cellar should be your first priority when planning a plot for residential and residential buildings.
If you only need storage for your homeblanks, fruits and vegetables, then you do not need to call specialists to perform this work. You can build a cellar with your own hands. An exception is the storage for wine and cheese, since the parameters of the necessary premises and a special temperature regime require professional knowledge.
How to start building a cellar? With the choice of a suitable location and design option. The most successful variant of location is under the house or garage. You need to order special equipment for digging a foundation pit. Its dimensions should be fifty centimeters larger than the ready-made cellar. We will consider the device of a cellar made of reinforced concrete with a height of two meters and with dimensions of 3x2 meters in finished form.
We dig the foundation pit, after which we thoroughly ram the floorand walls. We fall asleep on the bottom with rubble, making a pillow about fifteen centimeters high. Cover with a five-centimeter layer of fine sand and properly rammed several times, moving in different directions.
Throughout the perimeter of the excavation at a distance of 40-50centimeters from the walls set metal rods, which protrude above the ground to a height of 15 centimeters. We lay them on and reinforce the reinforcing mesh with welding. If necessary, add extra legs in the center of the floor. Fill the entire surface of the bottom of the pit, gradually filling the voids under the net, and then above it, to a height of 15-20 centimeters. We leave the concrete to freeze for four days, during which we periodically moisten the surface with water from the watering can.
After the floor has completely solidified, we continueconstruction of a cellar. In the same way we make and fasten the reinforcing mesh to each wall. After that, we collect the formwork from strong boards along the perimeter of the cellar to the required height. It should be located at a distance of fifteen centimeters from the reinforcing mesh. Fill the walls with concrete and leave to stand and dry. This process can take quite a long time. If there is dry and hot weather, then to avoid the appearance of cracks it is necessary to wet the walls with water. After full hardening, you can remove the formwork and fill the ground with voids between the walls of the cellar and the pit.
The ceiling is made of reinforced concrete slabs,placing them in such a way that there is room for installing the hatch and two ventilation pipes. We need pieces of an asbestos pipe. One segment we install at a distance of thirty centimeters from the level of the floor, and the second - twenty centimeters below the ceiling of the ceiling, thus creating a good air circulation. If desired, you can supplement the system with several fans. They will help to regulate the temperature of the room during the warm season.
The next stage is the waterproofing of walls, floors andthe ceiling. For this, a specialized mastic, a special concrete with microcrystals or bitumen, is used. You can choose the most suitable way for you, taking into account the possibilities and availability of funds.
Install the hatch cover and adjust its tightnessadherence. The absence of slots will help maintain the desired temperature regime in the subfield. After that we make a comfortable ladder. If necessary, we make it from two spans with an intermediate platform and complement the railings. We conduct in the cellar electrical wires in sealed channels, install specialized fixtures for rooms with high humidity and a switch with a socket, supplemented with a lid.
We cover the slabs overlapping layer of soil. This completes the construction of the underground, and it is possible to start erecting a garage or a house above it.