How did the ancient man live?
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In his development, man had to go through several basic steps of evolution. This process began with the most ancient person and ended with a rational man. Each species had its own characteristics, which were expressed, but not only in the appearance of people, but also in their everyday life. Now scientists offer different versions of how the ancient man lived, and about who was the ancestor of the modern individual.
Australopithecus and Skillful Man
The evolutionary development of man is divided by scientists into four stages. The very first people on earth were Australopithecus, who were practically the same as the apes. They lived on the territory of South Asia and South Africa from about 5 million to 400 thousand years ago. It is worth noting that the Australopithecus already mastered the primitive tools of labor, which were stones and sticks.
However, most scientists in the world do not rank Australopithecus as the human ancestors, since they are considered to be a dead-end branch of evolution.The reason for the emergence of such a hypothesis was the discovery of human remains in East Africa in 1959, which were closer to humans than Australopithecus. The age of these finds is 12 million years.
As a result, the most ancient people lived on the earth began to be called in the scientific world Homo habilis, that is, a Skilled Man. In the light of these events, some scientists began to attribute the Skillful Man to Australopithecus, while others consider him to be a separate independent branch. But meanwhile, most scientists agree that it is this species that should be considered the ancestor of modern man.
The next step in the process of human evolution was the most ancient people, which appeared about 1.9 million years ago and disappeared about 300 thousand years ago. It should be noted that these include the following types of people: Pithecanthropus, Sinanthropus and Heidelberg. But all the above-mentioned ancient people are ranked as one type - Homo erectus - upright man.
About how and where, lived the ancient people know quite a bit. The found primitive tools and remains suggest that they lived in groups or primitive herds.They got food by hunting and gathering, they had not yet learned how to farm the land and tame wild animals. The ancient people used caves and some other suitable shelters as dwellings. Scientists believe that they communicated using gestures and primitive sounds that were not yet articulate speech.
In place of erect man came Neanderthals. Their period of dwelling lasted from 200 to 30 thousand years ago. If we compare them with their predecessors, they were more skillful and used fire. It was possible to find out that in warm regions they settled along river banks, while in cold regions they settled in caves. As the main type of food extraction from the Neanderthals was hunting. In addition to the meat of killed animals, they also used their skins, making clothes from them. Since they had not yet adapted themselves to sew it, their clothes were very rough, as a rule, from pieces of hides.
Social relationships have also undergone a number of changes. Neanderthals cared for those who for various reasons could not get their food. It was their scientists who first met the burial of the dead, which indicates significant progress in interpersonal relations.Various collective actions that have manifested themselves in hunting, taking care of children, and protecting their villages have become of tremendous importance. Due to the complication of social relations, Neanderthals had articulate speech.
People of the modern type, namely Homo sapiens, that is, Homo sapiens, appeared about 50 thousand years ago. They began to be called Cro-Magnon by the place where the remains of people of this type were found, in the French grotto Cro-Magnon. In appearance, they practically had no differences from the modern man. Now you know how ancient people lived.