How are interrogations conducted?
Interrogation is the receipt and fixation of oral testimony pertaining to the case under investigation, within the limits established by the criminal procedure code.
Interrogation is the most common way to obtain evidence for an investigation. At the same time, it is considered one of the most difficult investigative actions. We invite you to learn how to conduct interrogations.
Types of interrogation
Depending on the attitude of the respondent to the case under investigation, the types of interrogation are determined:
- interrogation of a witness;
- interrogation of the victim;
- interrogation of the suspect;
- interrogation of the accused;
- interrogation of an expert;
- questioning a specialist;
- interrogation of the defendant
A witness, a victim and an expert are criminally responsible for knowingly giving false testimony. The suspect and the accused may refuse to testify and do not bear any responsibility for lying.
By age divided:
- interrogation of an adult;
- interrogation of a minor;
- interrogation of a minor
A minor and a juvenile may be interrogated only in the presence of a parent, teacher or other responsible person.At the same time, they necessarily take into account the suggestibility, the special susceptibility to the foreign influence of this category of citizens.
The tactics of interrogating the suspect is determined by the specific situation that develops between the investigator and the person being questioned. This can conflict-free or conflict situation.
Techniques used during the conflict-free interrogation:
- Adjacency. Help an interviewee to recall events through associations. For example, a crime scene can be shown to a suspect so that he can recall events in more detail.
- Similarity. Restoration of important to the investigation of details and thoughts with the help of similar concepts that are not relevant to the case.
- Contrast. Comparison of opposing phenomena. For example, forgotten winter events can be remembered when reminded of the summer period.
- Disunity. Separation of relationships that have arisen in perception, to identify individual signs, independent properties.
- Periphrase. The investigator asks to rephrase the expression, repeat it again in your own words, in order to reveal information prompted by other people.
- Visibility.When it is difficult for an interrogated person to express feelings with words, he may be offered a scale of colors, images, models and the opportunity to express a thought in the form of a picture.
Techniques used during the conflict interrogation:
- Stress relief. Goodwill, conviction in the wrong position.
- Creating stress. Emotional impact, aimed at the destruction of confidence in the selected position.
- The use of positive personality traits. Emphasis on the integrity of the interrogated person, his reputation, past achievements, etc.
- The use of weaknesses of the individual. Anger, temper, anxiety can push for more sincere answers to the interrogation.
- Suppression of lies. Having reliable information, you can immediately reject a clear lie, presenting evidence.
- Waiting Initially, in a person, there is a struggle of motives for false testimony with motives for truthful testimony. After giving the person information that tunes in on the true motive, the investigator takes a break in the interrogation, allowing the person to choose the truth for himself.
- Legend assumption. The investigator gives the opportunity to tell false information to the end, and then destroys the legend.
- Call.The investigator pushes the interrogated person to lie, and then discourages evidence.
- Suddenness At the time of giving false testimony question or clarification of the facts may interrupt the chain of prepared non-truthful information.
- Sequence. Presentation of all kinds of evidence to point out the senselessness of telling a lie.
- Distraction of attention. There is no special emphasis on the most important issues.
- Forced pace. The interrogated is not given time to think, so that he does not have time to come up with false testimony.
- Creating a certain understanding of the awareness of the investigator. It seems that the investigation knows a lot.
- Repetition. The interrogation is carried out once again.
Passing here you can learn useful information about how to behave during interrogation.
Interrogation with predilection
Interrogation methods were not always limited to subtle psychological effects. From time immemorial, torture was often used to obtain information, including both physical abuse and degrading actions.
The public KUBARK allowance from the CIA, about how to conduct interrogations, which was used during the Vietnam War, shook the public. It is known that a great emphasis was placed on threats to close people of the interrogated person.And besides the section "Non-Violent Methods" in the manual there was also a section "Violent Methods".
Methods of inquiry of the NKVD also abounded with cruelty. The sophistication of horrible torture has generated many rumors and legends.
The UN Convention Against Torture, signed on 12/12/1984, banned all kinds of bullying during interrogations, including inhuman treatment and humiliation.