How to connect lights?
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Today in big fashion spotlights. They are installed on suspended or suspended ceilings, they arrange original lighting of furniture, paintings or photo wallpaper. This work is in principle simple, partly similar to the connection of an ordinary chandelier, which is described in more detail in the article How to connect a chandelier. But there are some nuances that need to be taken into account in the work.
How to connect a lamp: the preparatory work
We will consider the case when a small redecoration is done or simply furniture is installed with lighting. In other words, all the wiring in the apartment is already there, and you need to connect new lamps to it.
First you need to decide how they will connect.
- They can be connected in parallel to an existing lighting - chandelier. Then the chandelier will be included with the lamps. This is possible if you are highlighting, say, an arched opening.
- Maybe the spot ceiling lights completely replace the old lighting, i.e.they will light the whole room.
- However, most often spotlights are used for local lighting: lighting of a wardrobe or kitchen cabinets, lighting of the working space near a computer, etc.
First of all, you need to mark where the lights will be located, where the switches will be located. It should be borne in mind that if you plan to install lamps in an already mounted suspended or suspended ceiling, most likely it will not work. It will be necessary to at least partially disassemble the existing structure. It is best to install fixtures and wiring in the finished frame, but before installing the final coating.
How to connect a lamp
Mount the spotlights in the design should be in accordance with the instructions onof them. If conventional incandescent bulbs are installed, heat them up and isolate them from easily combustible or meltable materials.
In general, luminaires are attached to the frame structure. It is necessary to drill holes in the surface of the covering of the hinged ceiling or furniture panel that fully correspond to the size and shape of the lamp.In the film ceiling, special mounting rings should be inserted into the holes. But it’s still too early to put panels and tape in place: we have no wiring.
Electric circuit for connecting the lamp
Having determined the place where the lamps will be located, you need to draw a wiring diagram, first on paper and then on the walls. If you plan to install lighting according to the first or second option, then the wiring must be maintained:
- phase off switch
- ground wire and ground take from the junction box.
The lamps themselves are connected in parallel with the chandelier and each other.
If the lamps have to work autonomously, according to the third option, then all the wiring must be conducted from the junction box. The switch is placed in the phase line. Ground wire and ground go to each device. If the switch is two-piece, both sections can be energized from one phase.
Wires must be laid along the frame of the structure to which the fixtures will be attached. This should be done in such a way that then the wires do not get hit with a drill or a self-tapping screw.In addition, it is recommended to stretch the wires into a special corrugation so that they never touch the metal.
Circuit with 12 V lamps
If you plan to use lamps for 12 V, then a step-down transformer is needed. In this case, you want it or not, you have to install a separate line of electrical wiring, not connected to the wires of the central chandelier, with a separate switch. The switch is placed in front of the transformer. The transformer itself can be installed among the structures of the suspended ceiling, which is so good that it allows you to hide all engineering communications.
But there is a subtlety. The longer the wire, the greater the voltage drop across it, and the dimmer the light will shine. The consistent inclusion of such lamps for this reason is simply impossible. But parallel inclusion also does not save. To get out of this situation, you can select the cross section of the wire: the longer the wire, so it must be thicker.
There is another option: all the wires to each lamp to make the same length. In this case, in some places they will form loops, but the lights in all places will be the same.
On the Internet, you can find tables of cable length, thickness and current flowing through it, for example,. Having carried out the corresponding calculations, it is possible to achieve that all the light bulbs shine equally. However, it is better to use a separate transformer for each lamp. This is at least more expensive, but safer.
Where to take grounding to connect the lamp
Now most electrical appliances are available with a grounding terminal. In new homes, all wiring is also done with grounding. But in the old houses it is not. According to the old Soviet standards, grounding, without further ado, was shorted to ground wire. Therefore, if the wiring is done in the old house, without a third wire in the sockets, you should do the same: close the ground to zero.
Just do not need to connect the ground to the bath or radiator. This is still permissible in a private house, although it is better to make a special grounding there. But in an apartment building such a connection is simply dangerous.
Imagine that, due to a voltage drop, several electrical appliances in a house struck pipes. What current will flow through it in this case? What scheme will connect all connected and grounded (more precisely, "chopped up") devices? No one will say that for sure, but it is better not to try.If there is no yellow-green wire in the wiring of your apartment (the ground is now indicated with such colors), zero the ground.
If you understand the process is difficult, on the Internet there are many videos about the order and method of installation of the lamp with all sorts of details. We recommend that you familiarize yourself with one of them. The main thing is to work carefully and carefully and, of course, do not forget about safety!