School program. Punctuation is ...
The word "punctuation" came to us from Latinlanguage. Literally punctum is a "point". Punctuation is a system that studies punctuation marks and the conditions for their posing in sentences. Is it really necessary to use it? Is there really not enough knowledge of the alphabet and the ability to write to understand and transmit information?
From the letters meaning sounds, words are formed. Through them people communicate. But in order to understand what is heard, it is sometimes not enough to pronounce the words in a certain sequence. Talking, a person uses different intonations, then raising, then lowering the tone. Thus, he accentuates the listener's attention on what has been said. Between the words or their individual groups, gaps of different lengths can be used. Without all these moments can not do, because it is they who give the proposal a certain semantic nuance. Speaking with the help of voice, pauses can correctly convey information to the interlocutor. And how to do it all to someone who writes, for example, a message? How in writing to competently present their attitude to what is at stake? How to show and express your emotions? This is where punctuation will help. This is exactly the tool that helps to highlight intonation on the letter.
Along with orthography, punctuation isa necessary part of the graphic system of any language. Knowing the correct setting of different punctuation marks is as necessary as the correct spelling. Without this, there will be no accuracy and completeness in the content of the text. What is needed to ensure that all readers correctly evaluate and understand the information presented? For this, a set of rules for punctuation is established in the national language. In a letter of different nationalities, they can have the same graphic image, but differ in their meaning and, therefore, the condition of use. But the main thing is not this. It is important that representatives of one language understand the meaning and designation of a punctuation mark equally.
Russian punctuation can be viewed in a narrowand broad sense. In the first case we are talking about the basic punctuation marks. Everyone knows that at the end of any sentence put a point. To transmit interrogative intonation, expressing emotional coloring, you will need a question mark or an exclamation mark, an ellipsis. These are signs of the end of the sentence. Sometimes parts of the syntactic structure are separated from each other with a comma, a semicolon, a dash, and a colon. They are called the signs of the "middle" of the sentence. Select parts of complex syntactic structures by using double elements (commas or dashes), parentheses and quotes. These are paired excretory signs. In all there are twelve. For competent writing and correct understanding, students need to be aware of the condition of setting each of them.
In a broad sense, punctuation is the wayspatial organization of the text. Here you can talk about paragraph breaks, spaces, asterisks and other signs. In the course of the educational process, they also need to introduce the students. This is necessary for a complete understanding of the rules of design and construction of the text. The children are fully acquainted with the rules of punctuation after the 7th grade. Before that, they received only isolated principles that included punctuation. Class 8 provides for a more in-depth study of the system of punctuation. There is an understanding that by means of graphic elements the text is divided into parts, the singularity of the structure of the syntactic unit and its intonation is transmitted in writing.
With the help of special computer tasks, you cancheck your level of knowledge in this area. Testing will show the most common errors, will indicate their reasons. The recommendations that will be proposed after the task is completed and verified will help to avoid shortcomings in the future. This system can be used by high school students, applicants and teachers of the Russian language, as well as people whose occupation is related to the growth of their own literacy and testing it from others.
From the history
The formation of Russian punctuation was at the beginning19th century. In general, it was similar to the rules for punctuation in other European languages. But the punctuation of past centuries differs from modern. In Ancient Rus, words and sentences were not separated from each other. The scribes in their work used such signs as a point, a cross, a wavy line. After a while in the writing begin to meet a colon, parentheses, a question mark. The further development of the system was influenced by the introduction of the printing business. Only by the beginning of the 19th century, when the modern Russian literary language was being formed, the basic concepts about the correct and uniform punctuation marks for all use were being strengthened. At the same time, the famous representative of grammatical science MV Lomonosov begins his monumental work: he creates the "Russian grammar" (1755). It was this man in his work that gave rise to Russian punctuation as a science.
Proceedings of scientists
His student, professor, continued the work of LomonosovMoscow University, AA Barsov. He clearly, precisely and clearly laid out the rules of Russian punctuation in his scientific work. But his "Grammar" came to us only in handwritten form. The most orderly and systematic information about punctuation was provided by Academician J. K. Grot in his book "Russian Spelling." For many years, the history and formation of the language and its separate sections has been explored. This book is the first in our country a set of spelling and punctuation rules. The work of the Grotto is so well known that until 1917 it survived twenty editions.