The grammatical basis of the sentence
In the center of the links of the words of each sentencethere are words that create a grammatical basis (predicative), in fact this is the main distinctive feature of the sentence as a syntactic unit. That is, the grammatical basis is the organizing center, the original frame, the skeleton or the so-called main members of the sentence-the predicate and the subject. The main them are called knowingly, since they are grammatically independent of other members, occupy the dominant position in the sentence. The predicate and the subject mutually assume each other. So, the subject calls the subject of speech. And the predicate this subject of speech asserts, denies, characterizes by action, feature, time, reality, etc.
Usually the main terms of the proposal areits obligatory part. One of them is enough for the proposal to be grammatically and in terms of a formalized unit. Quite often there are sentences where there is only a grammatical basis. Examples:The sun is shining. Children play.Such proposals are called unsolved,since do not have any secondary members of the proposal. If the proposal includes other members of the proposal (secondary), then such a sentence is called widespread, for example:On the streetchildren play.
In addition, the grammatical basis of a sentence can consist of both the subject and the predicate (two-part sentences), and only from one of the main members (one-part sentences), for example:Ourchildrenis ourjoy(two-part).Autumn.I loveautumn(one-piece).
Also, depending on the number of grammaticalfundamentals, sentences are classified as simple and complex. If the sentence has in its composition one grammatical basis, then this is a simple sentence, two or more bases are complex. For example:Goingstraitrains(simple sentence).Very soonwill fall outsnow, andwill beginrealwinter(difficult sentence).
The syntactic analysis is mandatorybegins with the definition of the grammatical basis. For its correct definition it is necessary to be able to find its components - the subject and the predicate. To do this, you need to know which parts of speech can express the grammatical basis.
Thus, the subject is expressed by:
- In the noun:Coming soonsnow.
- In the adjective:Newrequires a lot of knowledge.
- Communion:Speakingis often mistaken.
- The infinitive:LiveIs to feel.
- Unchangeable parts of speech (interjection, adverb, preposition, particle, union):To ustomorrowenters light and radiant.
- Phrase:We are with friendwent fishing.
The predicate is expressed by:
- The verb:It is worthgood weather.
- Noun:Moscow -capitalRussia.
- Adjective:To memilpoems Russian heat.
- Adjective in a comparative degree:Every day of separation for melongerof the year.
- Adverb:All of usOK.
- Communion:Our familyinvolved into science.
- Stable phrase (phraseology):My health -nor the spouse, nor well.
In addition, pay special attention to the correctness of the definition of the compound nominal predicate, which consists of the verb-bundle and the nominal part (He will soonbecomes an astronaut) and a compound verbal predicate, which also consists of two parts: an auxiliary verb and an infinitive (Youmust goto the meeting).
It should be noted that the correct definitiongrammatical bases helps to avoid mistakes in the arrangement of punctuation marks. So, in a complex sentence, punctuation marks are always placed, denoting the boundaries of simple sentences that make up their composition. The ability to determine the subject and predicate will help to correctly place punctuation marks in a simple sentence if both main terms of the sentence are expressed by the same parts of speech, and in some other cases.