The Problem of Truth in Philosophy
The problem of truth in philosophy is centralin the whole theory of knowledge. It is identified with the very essence, is one of the most important worldview concepts, is on a par with such key phenomena as Good, Evil, Justice, Beauty.
The problem of truth in philosophy and science israther complicated. Many concepts of the past, for example, the concept of Democritus on the indivisibility of atoms, was considered indisputable for almost two thousand years. Now it already appears as a delusion. However, most likely, a large part of the currently existing scientific theory will turn out to be misconceptions that are refuted over time.
At each stage of its development, mankindhad only a relative truth - an incomplete knowledge containing errors. Recognition of the truth is related to the infinity of the process of cognition of the world, its inexhaustibility.
The problem of truth in philosophy also lies in theThe fact that the knowledge of each historical epoch contains elements of absolute truth, since it has an objectively true content, is an essential stage of cognition, is included in subsequent stages.
Methods of interpretation
The problem of truth in philosophy required for its solution several ways of interpreting this concept.
- Ontological understanding. "Truth is what is." The very existence of a thing or thing is important. The fidelity of the conclusion can be revealed at a certain moment, a person will open it through words, works of art, making it the property of all. However, to the cases of different understanding and perception of the same process, such a position is not critical.
- Epistemological understanding. "Truth is when knowledge corresponds to reality." But there is also a lot of disagreement, because the practice of comparing the obviously incomparable: real-material and ideal is widespread. Moreover, many phenomena, for example, "freedom", "love", can not be verified.
- Positivistic understanding. "Truth must be borne out by experience." Positivism considered only what can really be tested in practice, and the rest went beyond the limit of studying "real philosophy". Such an approach clearly leaves out of attention many important phenomena, processes, and essences.
- Pragmatic understanding. "Truth is utility, the effectiveness of knowledge." According to this approach, the right to recognize what gives effect, brings profit.
- Conventional understanding. "Truth is an agreement." According to this approach, if there were disagreements, it was necessary to agree what exactly to consider as a correct conclusion. This position can be used only for a certain time and not in all fields of activity.
Most likely, the problems of truth in philosophyunite all these approaches. Truth is what actually exists, corresponds to our knowledge. At the same time, this is a definite agreement, an agreement. It is objective and subjective, absolute and relative, concrete and abstract.
Great importance in cognitive activityplay a person's faith, conviction, confidence. In the process of cognition, the subject becomes closer to the world, unites with it. Cognitive attitudes are attitudes of interest, not indifference and impersonality. In the cognitive process there is a willful choice of faith and belief. In fact, faith is the starting point of knowledge and its purpose. It allows you to overcome the gap that exists between ignorance and knowledge. The problem of truth in philosophy lies in the choice of a more convincing explanation. Therefore, in order to mobilize their spiritual forces in the absence of accurate evidence or lack of information, one must have faith in one's own abilities.