Vocabulary is colloquial and colloquial: examples and rules of use
Write a bright, memorable book is difficult. But some authors are able to win their attention to an impressive readership with their works. What is the secret of their success? Let's try to find out in this article how they achieve universal recognition.
Vocabulary vernacular - words with a rude,stylistically reduced and even vulgar shade, which are located beyond the boundaries of the literary syllable. They are not typical for exemplary, book style, but are familiar to different groups of society and are a cultural and social characteristic of those people who do not speak the written language. Such words are used in some types of conversation: in a jocular or familiar language, in verbal skirmishes and the like.
In general, it is called non-literaryvocabulary, which is used in people's conversations. However, it can not be rude and have a special expression. It includes, for example, such words as "inward", "in vain", "for nothing", "theirs", "the other day", "for the time being", "hardly", "in bulk", "get tired", "rubbish" "Blurted out," "hard worker", "artichitsya", "brainy".
The marks in the dictionaries, indicating the lowered stylistics of words and their meanings, giving them a minus estimate, are countless. Vocabulary most often contains an appraising-expressive tone.
It also can find generally accepted sayings, differing only in their accentology and phonetics ("tabaterka" instead of "snuffbox", "surreal" instead of "serious").
Reasons for use
Vocabulary is spoken in different types of dialectsis used for various reasons: the author's direct relation to the described, pragmatic motifs (journalistic phrases), expressive themes and shocking (colloquial words), characterological motifs (artistic phrases). In official-business and scientific conversations, the common vocabulary is perceived as an element of the inostranny.
Rough-spoken vocabulary has a weakened,expressive rude color. It consists, for example, of such words as "shusher", "dilda", "obormot", "mug", "paunchy", "trepach", "muzzle", "harya", "bast", "bitch", " to die "," slammed "," bastard "," hamlo ". To her belong extreme vulgarisms, that is, obscene expressions (obscene language). In this style, you can find words with exceptional vernacular meanings (most often metamorphic ones) - whistle (steal), "cuts" ("speaks briskly"), "rolls" ("write"), "weave" ( "Talk nonsense"), "hat" ("sprawl"), "vinaigrette" ("mishmash").
Phrase vocabulary is one of the basiccategories of the vocabulary of the writing language along with the neutral and book genre. It forms words, known mainly in dialogical phrases. This style is focused on informal conversations in the atmosphere of interpersonal communication (relaxed communication and expression of attitude, thoughts, feelings to the subject of conversation), as well as units of other tiers of the language, acting mainly in conversational phrases. Therefore, everyday expressions have an expressive diminished color.
Conversational genre is divided into two different in terms of capacity of the base layer: written vernacular and everyday vocabulary.
Vocabulary of speech
What is spoken andOrdinary vocabulary? The vocabulary consists of words that are characteristic of oral communicative practices. Conversational phrases are not homogeneous. They are located below the neutral sayings, but depending on the degree of literary language, this vocabulary is divided into two significant groups: colloquial and prostitutional lexicon.
The vocabulary of vocabulary includes terms,giving the conversation a hint of unofficiality, immediacy (but not rude-old-fashioned words). From the point of view of the attribute of parts of speech, conversational lexicon, like the neutral one, is diverse.
- nouns: "wit", "big guy", "nonsense";
- adjectives: "loose", "careless";
- adverbs: "in a proper way", "at random";
- interjections: "oh", "bai", "lie."
The lexicon, despite its dullness, does not go beyond the boundaries of the literary Russian language.
Vocabulary is more spacious in style than everyday, therefore it is placed outside the standardized Russian writer's speech. It is divided into three categories:
- Expressive-rude vocabulary grammaticallyis shown by the adjectives ("ragged", "pot-bellied"), verbs ("snooze", "rasschuhat"), nouns ("dilda", "obormot"), adverbs ("lousy", "foolish"). These words sound most often in conversations of poorly educated individuals, determining their cultural level. Sometimes they are found in conversations of intelligent people. Expressivity of these words, their semantic and emotional capacity allow sometimes expressively and briefly show the attitude (more often negative) to any object, phenomenon or person.
- Rude-colloquial lexicon differs fromrude-expressive high level of swagger. These, for example, are the words: "haylo", "harya", "murlo", "turnip", "grunt", "rylnik". These sayings are eloquent, they are capable of conveying the minus ratio of the conversing person to any episodes. In view of excessive savagery, such a vocabulary is inadmissible in the conversations of cultural people.
- Actually, it's a common language. It includes a small number of words that are not literary because they are clumsy (they are not rude in terms of expressive coloring and meaning) or are of a brutal nature (they do not have abusive semantics), but because they are not advised to use educated people in conversations. These are such words as "ahead of time", "just now", "my aunt", "I suppose", "otrodya." This kind of vocabulary is also called common folk and differs from the dialectal only in that it is used both in the city and in the countryside.
Synonyms in the common vocabulary and literary very often simultaneously differ in the degree of expressiveness and expressiveness:
- head - kalgan, head;
- face - obrazin, face;
- legs are jars.
Often in conversations there are not only synonyms as such, but also verbal variants of literary words, including grammatical ones:
- to her - to her;
- always - always;
- he ate - he is a healer;
- them is theirs;
- from there - out, ottedova;
- goodbye - to the date.
Creativity M. Zoshchenko
Many believe that the means of expressivenessspeech is a verbal lexicon. Indeed, in the hands of a master writer, non-literary words can serve not only as a means of psychological description of heroes, but also generate a style-recognizable specific situation. The prototype for this is the creative work of M. Zoshchenko, who skilfully mocked philistine psychology and way of life, "inculcating" uncomfortable folksy expressions into heroes' conversations.
What does his vernacular vocabulary look like in his books? Examples of professionalism M. Zoshchenko impressive. This talented writer wrote the following:
"Is not it time for us to sit down at the theater?" Called, maybe.
And she says:
And the third cake takes.
- On an empty stomach - not much? Can vytoshnit.
"No," he says, "we are accustomed."
And the fourth takes.
Then blood blew into my head.
"Lodges," I say, "back!"
And she was frightened. She opened her mouth, and a tooth glistens in her mouth.
And I felt like a reins under the tail. Anyway, I think, now do not walk with her.
"Lodges," I say, "to the fucking mother!" (The Story of the Aristocrat).
In this work the comic effect is achievednot only at the expense of a multitude of commonplace expressions and forms, but also because these statements stand out against the backdrop of "refined" literary stamps: "baked cakes" and so on. As a result, a psychological portrait of an uneducated, close-minded person, striving to appear intelligent, is created. He is the classic hero of Zoshchenko.
And what is dialectally-spaciousvocabulary? Studying the urban folk language, many ask the actual question about its local color, connected with the influence of dialects: emphasizing the limited parameters in accordance with the data of a separate metropolis makes it possible to compare them with the materials of other cities, for example, Tambov, Omsk, Voronezh, Elista, Krasnoyarsk and etc.
The conditional nature of the boundary between the common anddialectal vocabulary is often explained by the historical connections of the folk dialect with jargon, genetic causes, which are not quite rightly analyzed sometimes as the basic source of enlightenment of this impoverished reservoir of the national language.
Mastery of AI Solzhenitsyn
Agree, sometimes the use of the commonvocabulary gives the product a certain uniqueness. The language and stylistic skills of AI Solzhenitsyn, marked by extraordinary originality, attract many linguists. And the paradoxical nature of the minus attitude of some readers to it obliges us to study the language and style of the works of this author. For example, his story "One Day of Ivan Denisovich" shows the inner unity and consistent, accurate motivation of its figurative and verbal composition, in which, as LN Tolstoy argued, "there is a unique order of the only possible words," which is a sign of true artistry.
Dialectic vocabulary is very important for Solzhenitsyn. "Having delegated" the author's function to the peasant, making him the main hero of his story, the writer managed to create an unusually unconventional and expressive dialectical evaluation of his expressions, which decisively excluded for the entire current writing the effectiveness of returning to the battered stock of "folk" speech signs that wander from book to book such as "nadys", "aposlya", "milok", "look-kos" and so on).
For the most part this description of the dialectis produced not even by vocabulary ("ukhaydakatsya", "naled", "Khalabuda", "guanyav"), but due to word-formation: "obnevolyu", "nedotyka", "hiding place", "happy", "quick". This way of attaching dialectisms to the speech art sphere, as a rule, is criticized by criticism, as it revives the associative familiar connections of the image and the word.
And how is spoken vocabulary used in speech? In the conversations of the modern peasantry dialectal and common folk vocabulary are practically inseparable from each other. And do such words as "shitty", "self-thought", "spiritual", "catch up", or any specific dialect, and so are perceived, or are they used in general non-literary properties, for Ivan's speech evaluation Denisovich does not matter. It is important that with the help of both the first and second, the hero's conversation gets the necessary stylistic and emotional coloring.
We hear generous in humor, alive, free fromeasily borrowed recently in various controversial fields of the standard, insightful folk speech. Solzhenitsyn knows her well and sensitively perceives new insignificant shades.
What else is spoken about? Examples of its application can be given endlessly. It is interesting to use Shukhov's verb "insure" in one of the fresh "sports-production" values - to ensure the reliability of the action, to protect: "Shukhov ... thanked one hand with haste, hurriedly took a puncture, and insured the second from below, so as not to drop."
Or the tight application of one of the valuesthe verb "to consist", which could appear in folk sayings only at the present time: "Somebody brought stencils from the war, and since then, more and more dyes have been typed: nowhere are they, they do not work anywhere ...".
The knowledge of popular expressions gave Solzhenitsyn and hard life experience, and, of course, the active interest of the master, prompting him not only to consider, but also to specifically explore the Russian language.