What is the danger of salmonella? Treatment of the disease
To the departments of infectious diseases hospitals, especially inhot time, very often hospitalized people with a diagnosis - salmonellosis. Treatment of this disease should be carried out immediately so that no complications arise.
Salmonellosis belongs to acute diseasesinfectious nature. Manifestations of it are very diverse. This can be a simple carrier of the pathogen or the disease proceeds according to the type of gastroenteritis and even septic state.
Causes of the disease
The causative agents of this disease aregram-negative rods - salmonella. This is a fairly large group of microorganisms, which includes more than two thousand different serotypes. Sticks are quite mobile, feel great and successfully develop in a variety of nutrient media. The causative agent is stable in the environment, remains viable for a long time on food, and in meat and milk, salmonella reproduce without affecting the color and taste of the products. Getting with poor-quality products in the body, the rods begin to parasitize in the small intestine, localizing in the cells of its mucous membrane. Salmonella in the process of its life emit a dangerous toxin, which with blood spreads to all organs, causing the formation of purulent foci. Strong dehydration of the body and a shock condition are those complications that are dangerous for salmonella. Such patients are treated in intensive care units.
Clinical manifestations of the disease
The asymptomatic period of the disease can be short,from a few hours to two or three days. Then suddenly there are symptoms of gastroenteritis, i.e. the temperature rises to high values, chills, weakness, pain in the muscles, nausea and often indomitable vomiting. After a short period of time, fetid diarrhea appears, which can be repeated up to 15 times a day. In this case, there is a large loss of fluid and electrolytes. A strong dehydration of the body develops, blood pressure may decrease, the skin loses its turgor (elasticity), the patient's eyes fall. Elevated temperature persists for several days. The most dangerous and difficult is salmonella during pregnancy and in children, as rapid dehydration is a threat to the fetus.
In medicine, several forms of flow are distinguisheddisease. Uncomplicated salmonellosis, the treatment of which does not require hospitalization in the hospital, is manifested by a slight temperature and disorder of the stool. Symptoms of the disease usually go through one or two days.
Typhoid-like salmonellosis by the clinic is similar to typhoid fever. The correct diagnosis is made on the allocation of salmonella from the biomaterial.
Septic salmonellosis is severe, withhigh fever of the wrong type and strong intoxication. With this form, purulent foci in the organs and joints can form. The disease can be complicated by endocarditis and meningitis. If such salmonella infection is diagnosed, the treatment is performed under resuscitation or purulent surgery.
Colitis is manifested by spastic pain in the abdomen, frequent diarrhea with an admixture of blood. The clinic resembles the course of dysentery.
In the recognition of the disease, great importancehave epidemiological prerequisites, such as mass poisoning or a specific link to a product. The most accurate diagnostic criterion is the allocation of a stick from food or vomit or stool.
Treatment of the disease
In medical events, it is very important to stopthe entry of toxin into the blood from the digestive tract. To do this, wash your stomach and intestines as soon as possible. It is very important to adequately fill the body with liquid and electrolytes, respectively, losses. An infusion therapy with saline solutions, physiological saline and glucose is prescribed. In severe cases apply antibacterial drugs penicillin series. In a state of shock with low blood pressure, in addition to infusion of hypertonic solutions, hormones are used. A rapid positive result in treatment is given by salmonella bacteriophage.
In most cases, with timely treatment begun, the prognosis of the disease is favorable.